CONGRESS PARTY

Indian National Congress

Indian National Congress which is also known as Congress Party is the oldest Indian political party founded in 1885. It dominated the Indian movement for Independence from Great Britain. Subsequently, it formed most of the governments in India since the Independence and then it had a strong presence in many states. The secular party is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya - the lifting up of all sections of society - which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalised people. Congress formed the central government of India after Independence in 1947 and became the nation's most dominant political party. After the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru became the sole head of the party in Independent India and for the first time he brought industrial revolution in the country and introduced many reforms for the benefit of public which transformed the country as-welfare state. He was succeeded by his daughter Indira Gandhi and she got name and fame as "Iron Lady of India". But, she gradually developed dictatorial tendencies in her approach. As the president of the party and Prime Minister of the country as well, she proclaimed National Emergency in 1975 under which the country witnessed turburlent conditions. Entire opposition was targetted and the two years of Emergency was noted as "black days" for the country. Later, it was lifted in 1977. In the then fresh elections, her party lost to Janata Party. In subsequent developments, She came to power again but this time her role in Operation Blue Star in Punjab's Golden temple came under severe criticism. The operation had destroyed and damaged portions of the Akal Takht of Golden temple, alleged destrruction of Sikh scriptures, manuscripts during the course of operation and caused massive casualties among Sikh pilgrims.

This operation followed the assasination of Mrs. Gandhi by Sikh terrorits on 31 October,1984. Later, her son Rajiv Gandhi took the reins and became Prime Minister. He brought revolution in Information Technology and became champion of next generation. When his dream to take the country into 21st century becoming reality, he was also assasinated by LTTE terrorist in Sriperambadur in Tamil Nadu. He was succeeded by PV Narasimha Rao form Andhra Pradesh and then Congress became India's dominant political party; as of 2015, in the 15 general elections since independence, it has won an outright majority on six occasions and has led the ruling coalition a further four times, heading the central government for 49 years. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–1964), and the most recent Manmohan Singh (2004–2014). Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nationwide, political parties in India, along with the right-wing nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of several regional parties, formed the Indian government, and was headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of May 2018, the party is in power in four legislative assemblies: Punjab, Mizoram, Karnataka (in an alliance with the JD(S)), and the union territory of Puducherry (in an alliance with the DMK).

The present President of the Congress is Rahul Gandhi, son of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and AICC president Sonia Gandhi. The Nehru-Gandhi legacy has percolated to the party's top leadership even today. The Congress has won General Elections a number of times in the country. The 2009 elections made the Congress form the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). Manmohan Singh was chosen again as the Prime Minister of India. Later, in 2014 The party suffered major setback, when the BJP's Priministerial candidate Narendra Modi mania has routed Congress party in the elections.

CONGRESS IN UNITED ANDHRA, LATER :

Congress party is having rich legacy in the politics of Andhra Pradesh and many stalwarts of the party including Pattabhi Seetharamaiah, who became the president of All India Congress in the year 1959, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy in 1960 and PV Narasimha Rao in 1992. The party high command has dictated terms to Andhra leaders from the beginning and it changed Chief Ministers very often in the state in it's rule till 1983. However, the inception of Telugu Desam Party became a big challenge and headache to Congress from 1983. As far as Telangana elections of 2018 is concerned, the Congress has alligned with its arch rival Telugu Desam Party to defeat BJP.

After Independence, M.K. Vellodi was the first Chief Minister and the Congress party picked up Burgula Ramakrishna Rao as his successor. The Congress party from 1956 to 1983 has changed many Chief Ministers, but successful in running the government in the united state. The former Chief Ministers list include, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, Kasu Bramhananda Reddy, P.V. Narasimha Rao, Jalagam Vengala Rao, Marri Chenna Reddy, Tanguturi Anjaiah, Bhavanam Venkatram and Kotla Vijayabhaskar Reddy.

The future of Chief Ministers was in the `sealed covers' of Congress high command, which sents to Andhra very often and it became a culture of the party.

The party has changed four Chief Ministers in five years, which led to entry of N.T. Ramarao from film industry. In the beginning of the year 1983 has witnessed sea change in politics of Andhra, where non-Congress leader N.T. Ramarao took oath as Chief Minister. However, the Congress has played a mischief during 1984, when NTR left for US for heart surgery. Nadendla Bhaskar Rao at the behest of Congress high command has back-stabbed NTR and became Chief Minister. Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is the woman behind this incident. But, NTR with returned to power with thumping majority after he came back from US and took out yatra and won the confidence of the public. In 1989, Congress came to power again and continued in power for five years, but changed three Chief ministers including Marri Chenna Reddy, Nedurumilli Janardhana Reddy and Kotla Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy. However, it tasted elctoral defeat in the year 1994 and the people kept the party away from power for 10 long years. Dr. Y.S. Rajasekhar Reddy took the responsibility in bringing back the party into power by taking up Padayatra in just before 2004 and came to power. He again came to power in 2009 also, despite TDP's efforts and allainces with other parties. Film star Chiranjeevi's "Praja Rajyam Party" has divided the votes, which went in favour of Congress. On 2 September 2009, Dr. Rajasekhar Reddy died in a helicopter crash, which led to serious crisis in the party. YSR's son Jaganmohan Reddy aspired for the post of Chief Minister, but high command picked up K. Rosaiah as CM. After Mr. Rosaiah became CM, several developments took place in Andhra and Telangana regions. K. Chandrasekhar Rao launched new party-TRS in 2001 and took up fast unto death for separate statehood. Union government led by Dr. Manmohan Singh announced Sri Krishna Committee to decided on statehood issue on 3 February, 2010. In the meanwhile, the then Chief Minister Mr. Rosaiah asked high command to relieve him from the post and N. Kiran Kumar Reddy was the choice of high command at that time.

On the other hand, YS Jaganmohan Reddy launched new party - YSR Congress on 12 March, 2011 and several MLAs resigned from Congress to strengthen his hands, which became another headache for Chief Minister Mr. Kiran Kumar Reddy and also high command. AP Reorganizaiton Act was introduced in Parliament to give special status to state in the year 2014. Congress paty faced turmoil in the state and Center on Telangana statehood issue and it faced a debacle in 2014 elections though it tried to convince people that it is committed to separate Telangana. Congress was routed in Andhra as it failed to get a single seat and in Telangana it got only 21 seats. After TRS forme its first government in Telangana under the leadership of K. Chandrasekhar Rao, Congress party tried its' best to regain its strength. However, Mr. KCR went ahead by dissolving Assembly 9 months before its term to weaken Congress party.

Telangana Pradesh Congress Committee led N. Uttam Kumar Reddy is all set to take on TRS and in Andhra it is N. Raghuveera Reddy lead the party in 2019 Assembly, Parliament elections.